A bundle method for solving equilibrium problems by Ngu T. T. V.

By Ngu T. T. V.

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The How Evolution Happens 45 inheritance of biological traits in nature is not under an individual organism’s control. In the natural world, an organism cannot dictate which traits it will inherit, nor can its parents direct which traits to pass along. The traits are passed along by chance in the form of mutations—slight, unpredictable variations in the genetic code that happen when organisms reproduce. When we hear the word mutation, we normally think that something bad has happened. But mutations are not always harmful to an organism.

DNA contains the best clues yet for accurately categorizing organisms within proper groups. This is because DNA can reveal inherited traits that link different organisms with common ancestors. Another breakthrough in the classification of living things came in 1977 when molecular biologists Carl Woese (b. 1928) and George Fox (b. 1945) were studying the genetic makeup of bacteria. While studying samples of “bacteria,” Woese and Fox stumbled upon a form that was different from other bacteria. This form became known as an anaerobic organism, which means that it does not require oxygen to live.

Over a long time, the differences may become increasingly numerous. Eventually, the genetic makeup of one group may differ significantly from the other, making it no longer possible for them to interbreed. When this occurs, the new group has become a new species. It will retain characteristics of its ancestors but will have formed its own branch on the family tree of related species. 1â•… Genetic drift is the change in the genetic composition of individuals in a random sampling of a finite population over time.

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