By Ernest Pancsofar
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And The residents of the John Collier House in Eugene, Oregon, for the experiences they provided. Page vii Contents Preface xi Introduction 1 1 Philosophic Orientation 3 Normalization Criterion of Ultimate Functioning Competence-Deviance Hypothesis Least Restrictive Environment Dignity of Risk Ecological Orientation Summary 2 Range of Residential Options 17 Community Living Alternatives Evaluative Review of Sheltered Villages Evaluative Review of Small Group Homes Summary 3 Evaluation of Community-Living Options 27 Needs Assessment Formative Evaluation Cost Effectiveness Summary 4 Financing a Residential Home 41 Funding Sources Page viii Private Funding Profit Funding Local Agency Funding Purchase of Service (State Funding) Medicaid: Title XIX (Federal Funding) Other Financial Considerations Summary 5 Transitioning Residents from Previous Living Environments 57 Gradual Introduction to the Home Preserving Some of the Old Personalizing the New Home Transferring Relevant Information Establishing Personal Relationships Understanding Special Needs Trial Period for New Residents Summary 6 Voluntary Community Resources 69 Coordinator: Volunteer Resource Personnel Facility Needs: Potential Volunteer Assistance Residential Advisory Board Other Resource Personnel Suggestions for Working with Volunteer Assistance Organizational Plan for Establishing a Volunteer Program Volunteer Program Forms Summary 7 Instructional Strategies for Conducting Training Programs 83 Antecedent Change Prompt Hierarchies Least Prompting Most Prompting Time Delay Modifying the Task Presentation Chaining Adding and Fading of a Color Cue Consequent Changes Resident Reinforcement Survey Summary 8 Domestic Living Skills 95 Current and Subsequent Domestic Living Inventories Page ix Environmental Analysis for Household Cleaning Tasks Safety Needs for Group Home Residents Domestic Domain State of the Art Resources 9 Leisure Time Activities 123 Overview/Suggestions for Leisure Time Programming Leisure Time Activity Content Areas Arts/Crafts Games/Table Physical Fitness Hobbies Sports/Games Social Sample Instructional Formats for Selected Leisure Activities Partial Participation in an Activity Residents with Restricted Leisure Time Activities Suggested Activities Community Involved Program A Final Thought 10 General Community Functioning 149 Interview Resident, Peers, and Primary Care Providers Locate Specific Environments Analyze Characteristics of Activities Develop Data Sheets Use Data Sheets in Specific Environments Develop Task Analyses Develop Training Strategies Summary 11 Characteristics of Model Training Efforts Within Residential Settings 161 An Established Philosophy Statement Domain Referenced Curriculum Community-Based Activities Interaction With Nonhandicapped Peers Involvement of Citizen-Advocates and Neighbors Systematic Instruction Strategies with Data Based Decision Procedures Hierarchy of Documented Procedures for the Decrease of Aberrant Behavior Regular Inservice Sessions to Update Staff on Current State-of-the-Art Knowledge Daily Schedule for Each Resident Page x Use of Generic Medical Facilities and Community Services Self-Evaluation Checklist References 175 Index 181 Page xi Preface A decade ago there would not have been interest, and therefore little reason, to prepare a guide directed at entering individuals with severe handicaps into independent living.
Formative evaluation refers to the periodic assessment of ongoing residential services in order to make decisions about whether to continue the present delivery model or to develop alternative residential options. '' (Rossi, Freeman, & Wright, 1978, p. 242) The issues surrounding needs assessment, formative evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis are now discussed in relation to the establishment of community residential living options for individuals with severe handicaps. A canvass of other data sources including high-risk registers, school records, and vocational rehabilitation facilities (p.
The same kind of fire escape breaks the view; the same dirty pavement is beneath. But in these apartments the windows are clean, the curtains are starched and white, the Venetian blinds are evenly drawn. And a light has been lit. They have met a common problem and found dignity. So I think it must be with each one of us. This is our street. We can be ruined by it, or we can bring meaning to it and to ourselves. And perhaps that is the sameness for which our hearts long. All streets have grayness, at one end of every street there is a Bellevue.