By Asami Miketa, Keywan Riahi, Richard Alexander Roehrl, Leo Schrattenholzer
Sustainable improvement and worldwide weather switch have figured prominently in clinical research and overseas policymaking because the early Nineties. This e-book formulates know-how thoughts that may result in environmentally sustainable power structures, in line with an research of world weather switch matters utilizing the concept that of sustainable improvement. The authors specialize in environmentally suitable, long term know-how advancements in the worldwide power approach, whereas additionally contemplating points of monetary and social sustainability. The authors research a great number of replacement situations and illustrate the diversities among those who meet the factors for sustainable improvement and those who don't. because of their research, they determine a number of promising socio-economic and environmental improvement paths which are in line with sustainable improvement. One sustainable-development situation and its coverage implications are then awarded intimately from a expertise swap viewpoint. The authors suggest formidable objectives for know-how adoption which are judged to accomplish the specified socio-economic and environmental pursuits. even though the optimum coverage combine to pursue those goals is obviously country-specific, the authors recommend that energy-related R&D that results in know-how functionality advancements and the advertising of expertise adoption in area of interest markets are the coverage suggestions in order to yield the main major long term merits. Policymakers, economists and researchers engaged on sustainability, strength economics, and know-how swap and innovation will welcome this topical and hugely readable ebook.
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Extra info for Achieving A Sustainable Global Energy System: Identifying Possibilities Using Long-Term Energy Scenarios (Esri Studies Series on the Environment)
Together, these assumptions lead to relatively modest energy demand. In particular, slower technology improvements result in a high reliance on fossil fuels. Up to 2020, the structure of energy supply and end use remains closer to the current situation. After that time, oil and gas maintain a significant share in the global primary-energy mix up to about 2070. 1 Technology improvement rates in IIASA’s high-impact scenarios relative to all SRES scenarios Technology Improvement Rates SRES-A2 SRES-B2 SRES-A1B SRES-A1G SRES-A1C WEC-A1 WEC-A2 WEC-B Coal Oil Gas Non-fossil Average Low High Low High Average High Low–Average Low Average High Very High Low High Low Low Low Average–High High Very High Low High Low Average Low–Average Average High Median Low Average–Low Low Average are being utilized.
A. Grübler, N. Nakic´enovic´, M. Obersteiner, K. Riahi, L. Schrattenholzer and F. Toth (2003), ‘Planning for future energy resources’, letter to Science, 300(5619), 581–2, 25 April 2003. Riahi, K. R. Roehrl (2000), ‘Energy technology strategies for carbon dioxide mitigation and sustainable development’, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 3(2), 89–123. H. (1997), ‘An assessment of world hydrocarbon resources’, Annual Review of Energy Environment, 22, 217–62. C. Zinyowera and R. Moss (eds) (1996), Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
2 EXPLORING THE RANGES A common way of graphically presenting values and ranges of a number of variables is a regular polygon and (zero-based) axes between the centre and each vertex. For summarizing the global scenarios of the SRES database, we have chosen a heptagon representation with seven variables, five of which are describing the values of scenario variables in the year 2100, one a cumulative figure up to that year, and one describing a growth rate. The seven variables are (a) CO2 emissions, expressed in billion (109) tons of carbon, (b) specific carbon emissions per unit of primary energy, expressed in grams of carbon per megajoule, (c) total primary energy consumption up to the year 2100, expressed in zetajoules (1021 joules), (d) specific primary-energy consumption per GDP, expressed in megajoules per US dollar (1990 purchasing power), (e) world gross domestic product, expressed in trillions (1012) US dollars (1990 purchasing power), (f) population, expressed in billion (109) people, and (g) growth of world gross domestic product (GDP), expressed as the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of the GDP between 1990 and 2100.