By Zaid Chowdhury
This e-book makes a speciality of the suggestions activated carbon filtering presents, together with the demanding situations dealing with water prone to supply secure water. whereas demonstrating the worth of activated carbon in tricky instances, insurance contains utilities reviews and functions plus a variety of layout and procurement techniques. Appendices comprise case reviews and existence cycle checks
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Extra info for Activated Carbon: Solutions for Improving Water Quality
If other adsorbates are present in the water, as they are in nearly all practical cases, then the adsorption capacity for a specific compound decreases, even if the background contains only weaker adsorbing compounds. , K F,1 > K F,2). In Figure 1-7a, the effect of the more weakly adsorbed Compound 2 on the adsorption of Compound 1 is shown. Increasing the initial concentration of Compound 2 causes the adsorption capacity of Compound 1 to decrease relative to the single-solute isotherm at C2,0 = 0.
However, when the 1/n values of the different isotherms are significantly different, as shown in Figure 1-6b, the K F value is only useful in the concentration range around 1, in this case 1 mg/L. The isotherm plots converge at lower concentration ranges, and to compare adsorption capacities both the K F and 1/n values are needed, or comparisons can be made on the basis of a solid-phase concentration at a given liquid-phase concentration (qC). 001 mg/L (1 µg/L). For this example, the isotherm that yielded the lowest capacity in the mg/L range now has the highest capacity in the µg/L range.
1-2), the equilibrium solid-phase concentration was calculated. The results are shown in Table 1-2 and Figure 1-5. The shape of the isotherm plot is typical of the adsorption of target compounds by activated carbon from laboratory clean water. As can be seen for single-solute isotherms, the equilibrium relationship is not a function of the initial concentration. Equilibrium Adsorption Isotherm Models To be more useful, equilibrium isotherm relationships can be fit with model equations. The two most common are the Langmuir and Freundlich models.