Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by K. Siegbahn

By K. Siegbahn

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26 the relation due to Flammersfeld, which has the largest range of validity, is shown graphically. The accurate determination of Rp is difficult. For simple ^-spectra, in particular if 32 y-radiation, this determination can be the /Remission is accompanied by only a weak done visually. Such /^-emitters, like RaE, P and UX2, are therefore used as standard sources. For more complicated spectra such a simple method is not practical. Feather, Bleuler and Ziinti, and Katz et al. therefore worked out special methods for the determination of Rp.

Air . 3 Qi ρι is the density in g/cm and A\ the atomic weight. 4. (15) ENERGY AND RANGE STRAGGLING The distribution of the energy loss A Ε is nearly a gaussian distribution around the mean energy loss ΔΕ. 10 4 Mean Fig. 30. (17) 6 range in c m T h e range straggling parameter a in air at 1 57 °4C and 760 m m H g . F r o m Lewis and 0 Wynn-Williams CH. I INTERACTION OF α-PARTICLES 31 Fig. 32. Various curves for range determination. 76 A : R a n g e straggling. B : N u m b e r - d i s t a n c e curve.

From M o u l i n . 80 W. P. Jesse and J. Sadauskis, Phys. Rev. 9 0 (1953) 1120L. 34 CH. I G. K N O P A N D W . 30 M e V . F r o m Jesse and S a d a u s k i s . 95I I I I 1 1 I 0 1 2 3 A 5 6 E n e r g y in MeV Fig. 35. 7 2a s s u m e d t o be independent T h e energy per i o n pair w in air c o m p a r e d with that in argon o f velocity. F r o m Jesse and S a d a u s k i s . with the value w for electrons shows agreement for the noble gases while for the other 1 gases the values are8slightly higher than for electrons.

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