An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

By J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

Biological keep watch over is likely one of the such a lot promising tools for regulate of pests, illnesses and weeds, and this booklet treats ecological and societal facets jointly for the 1st time. the purpose is to judge the importance of convinced organic homes like biodiversity and normal habitats. In a societal technique phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are well-known as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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1998. Kosten und Nutzen des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes in der deutschen Landwirtschaft aus gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht. Agrarökonomische Monographien und Sammelwerke. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany. 254 pp. Webber, H. J. 1967. History and development of the citrus industry. In The Citrus Industry, Vol. 1, W. J. D. Batchelor (eds), University of California Press, 1-39. Webster, J. P. G. and Bowles, R. G. 1996. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of pesticide use in apples.

They also list a variety of socioeconomically detrimental effects of water hyacinth, which include: x Physical threats to water-based utilities, especially the national hydroelectric power station in Uganda, and to water intakes, in addition to increased operational costs for purifying and pumping the water; x Physical interference to water supply for rural communities; x Physical interference with fishing operations (entanglements or loss of nets), especially in fishing grounds, at fish landings, and around piers; x Blockage of commercial transport routes and communications between islands; and x Increased operational costs for commercial vessels.

4. Fire blight Fire blight is a recent problem in Europe. ) spread through most European countries (van der Zwet, 2002). g. ). Due to these efforts, the incidence of fire blight infections has decreased by more than 90 % (van Teylingen, 2002). During the invasive phase of fire blight, some countries allowed the use the antibiotic streptomycine, while organic farmers avoided this synthetic and problematic substance. Simultaneously, researchers worked hard to find alternatives to streptomycine. , 2002; Richter & Fischer, 2002).

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