By J. V. Ward, Boris C. Kondratieff, R. E. Zuellig
This can be a entire source at the biology, ecology, and systematics of aquatic bugs of Rocky Mountain streams. This richly illustrated and up to date quantity comprises descriptions of mountain flow ecosystems and habitats; simplified identity keys to the bugs of Colorado Mountain streams; transparent, well-labelled drawings; and an intensive bibliography. Species' distributions by way of drainage basin are supplied for mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies, the 3 orders for which such info can be found.
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Extra info for An illustrated guide to the mountain stream insects of Colorado
The adults of some aquatic bugs and beetles attach the eggs to their bodies. The term voltinism refers to the number of generations completed per year. A univoltine life cycle, one generation per year, is the common pattern among stream insects in temperate regions (Hynes 1970a). Semivoltine and perennial species require two or more than two years, respectively, to complete one generation. Species exhibiting univoltinism at low elevations (or latitudes) may be semivoltine or even perennial at high elevations (or latitudes).
The labrum (upper lip) of some mayflies is enlarged, flattened, and fringed with hairs (Fig. 43). By appressing their heads to the substrate, nymphs prevent water from flowing under their bodies and dislodging them. The mayflies may thus feed on periphyton on the tops of rocks in rapid water. Page 30 Numerous stream insects have well-developed claws and hooks that allow them to maintain position in current. The tarsal claws are well developed on the legs of many lotic species, although dipteran larvae lack true legs.
Several authors have suggested that altitudinal zonation patterns of stream insects (Fig. 11) result primarily from changes in the temperature regime as a function of elevation (Dodds and Hisaw 1925b; Kamler 1965; Knight and Gaufin 1966; Décamps 1967; Ward and Berner 1980; Ward 1981, 1982, 1984a). Many mountain stream insects are cold stenotherms; some species are able to grow at or near 0°C. Discharge and Current Many lotic insects, especially those of mountain streams, are highly adapted to conditions in running waters, and a large number are restricted to lotic environments because of inherent current requirements associated with their respiratory physiology or feeding mechanisms (Hynes 1970a).