By Zeynep Yürekli
In keeping with an intensive exam of structures, inscriptions, archival files and hagiographies, this ebook uncovers the political importance of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore presents a clean and accomplished account of the formative means of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial guidelines within the overdue 15th century, used to be recommended imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) tender strength coverage, and stored less than money through imperial specialists because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened through the remainder of the 16th century. This booklet demonstrates that it was once a mix of 2 collective actions that tested the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the past due 15th century onwards. One used to be the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto exact social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another in the course of the lives of old figures who have been their identification markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman historical past in artistic methods. the opposite one was once the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of kind, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output finds a sophisticated technique of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional element within the publication are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. although demonstrated as self reliant associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community less than the Ottomans, turned its vital centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, customarily less than the patronage of raider commanders dependent within the Balkans. They therefore got here to occupy an middleman socio-political region among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
11 When shaykh Junayd (d. 1460), a descendant of shaykh Safiuddin (d. 1324), was exiled from his shrine in Ardabil by the Karakoyunlu ruler Jahanshah (r. circa 1438–67), he travelled to the west and asked Murad II (r. 12 The Ottoman ruler refused this request but neither he nor his grand vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, who was consulted on the matter, could have guessed what a tremendous impact Junayd’s movement would have on the Ottoman state. The shaykh eventually found refuge with Turcoman tribes in Anatolia and was able to conscript many followers from among them, laying the foundations upon which his grandson Ismaʿil I (r.
E. Coşan (Istanbul, 1986); Hacı Bektaş, Maḳâlât, ed. A. Yılmaz, M. Akkuş and A. Öztürk (Ankara, 2009); Hatiboğlu Muhammed b. Ibrahim, Bahrü’l-Hakâyık, ed. H. Ertaylan (Istanbul, 1960). 66 Published manuals used by Bektashis include Hakkı Saygı, Şeyh Safi Buyruğu ve Rumeli Babagan (Bektaşi) Erkânları (Istanbul, 1996); Mehmet Yaman, Erdebilli Şeyh Safî ve Buyruğu (Istanbul, 1994); Adil Ali Atalay, İmam Cafer-i Sadık Buyruğu (Istanbul, 1999); Erkânnâme 1, ed. D. Kaplan (Ankara, 2007). The library of the shrine of Hacı Bektaş also had several erkānnāmes; mss Hacıbektaş Library, 8, 29, 36, 45, 110, 248.
M. Rogers, ‘The burial rites of the Turks and the Mongols’, Central Asiatic Journal, 14 (1970): pp. 195–227]; Vasilii Vladimirovich Bartol’d, ‘Pogrebenii Timura’, Zapiski Vostochnogo Otdeleniya Imperatorskogo Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo Obshchestva, 13 (1916): pp. M. V. Bartol’d’s Article Pogrebenii Timura (‘The Burial of Timur’)’, Iran, 12 (1974): pp. 65–87]. 45 The Safavid shah ʿAbbas I (r. 1587–1629), for example, walked from Isfahan to the shrine of Imam Riza in Mashhad on foot; see Charles Melville, ‘Shah ʿAbbas and the Pilgrimage to Mashhad’, Pembroke Papers, 4 (1996): pp.