By Jacob M. Landau
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17. II. Numerous works have been devoted to the intellectual development of Mustafa Kemal. Recent studies include Enver Ziya Karal, "The Principles of Kemalism," in A. Kazanctgil and E. Ozbudull, op. ; Giirbiiz Tufek~i, Atatiirk'un DUfunce Yapm (The Structure of Ataturk's Thought) (Ankara: Tes-i§, 1981); Artun Unsal, "La bibliothcque politique franpise d' Ataturk," in P. -L. Bacque-Grammont, op. cit. 12. , Heyet-i Temsiliye Tutanaklart (Records of the Representative Committee) (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1975).
The revolution meant among other things a transformation in outlook, the adoption of western ways of life, a fight against ignorance and superstition, the import The Origins of Kemalist Ideology 35 of new techniques, economic development and, in particular, a constant resort to science. This conception of inkilab was not peculiar to the republicans. The men of the Tanzimat and the nationalists of the pre-war period had pursued the same aim: to revolutionize society by scientific means and to apply to Turkey the methods that had proved so effective in the West.
Thus, the Economic Congress convened in Izmir in 1923 to discuss the reconstruction of the Turkish economy was held under the banner of The Origins of Kemalist Ideology 33 brotherhood between the various occupational categories. 29 The plan to base all political, economic and social life on corporations had few supporters, but Gokalp's rather vague slogan, "there are no classes, there are only occupations," had been integrated into the official doctrine of the state. 30 This populist theme was presented as a response to the Marxist concept of class struggle.