By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
All through their evolution, residing creatures have constructed structures to connect themselves to various substrate textures. As is the case in lots of technical platforms, animals use friction and adhesion to generate an attachment strength for overcoming drag. In fresh a long time, our wisdom of such structures has tremendously elevated. This quantity summarizes greater than 10 years of extremely structural and experimental reviews on insect attachment structures and offers an updated assessment of this topic. Many examples are provided and the final ideas of the interrelationship among the development of attachment platforms and the functionality are defined displaying the ideas of morphology and extremely constitution of such platforms. the foundations of layout all for the attachment structures defined may possibly motivate new principles in terms of the biomimetics of latest surface-active fabrics. viewers: This quantity presents a great creation to organic attachment and may be of curiosity to biologist, zoologist, fabrics scientists and engineers.
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Extra info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Many representatives of Odonata and cicadas, which deposit eggs into living plant tissues, or rotten wood, bear on their, ovipositor valvulae, hook-like outgrowths to interlock with the plant material (Müller, 1941; Gorb, 1994) (Fig. 5). The sting apparatus in females of Aculeata (Hymenoptera) is derived from an endophytic ovipositor (Snodgrass, 1935). The structure of the sting apparatus is also adapted, not only to penetrate living tissue, but often to attach to it as well. In this respect, several hook-like structures of bees’ and wasps’ stinging devices are analogous to penetrating-sucking mouth-parts.
An even wider spectrum of hooked attachment devices is present in parasite mites. , 1955). A specific behaviour allows specimens of the mite genus Michaelicus, parasitising on the feathers of water birds, to attach themselves to bird feathers. They raise one foreleg at an angle to the body axis, and extend their hook-like tarsus between the barbules (Dubinin, 1951). This kind of attachment behaviour is reflected in the asymmetric design of the legs. An additional seta is present at the base of the left tarsus of M.
Numerous specialised, hook-like structures are found in parasitic arthropods, adapted for attachment to particular surfaces of the host body. 1 Hooking to the substratum Terrestrial locomotion is always connected with the attachment of extremities to the substratum. The most common example of the hook-like attachment device is the tarsal claw, which is used to interlock with surface texture during locomotion. Prolegs of butterfly caterpillars bear hooks, or crochets, surrounding the proleg sucker.