By Francesca Happe
This identify is meant for complicated undergraduate and masters point scholars in psychology; specialist medical, developmental and academic psychologists; normal practitioners and others with a distinct curiosity in teenagers; careworkers; and fogeys of autistic childrens.
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In each condition, the children also had to refrain from misleading or obstructing a puppet co-operator who helped the child. In this experiment the children with autism proved surprisingly competent at sabotage but largely incapable of deception. Such well designed experiments would appear to render explanations of autistic failure in terms of methodological artifacts untenable. Russell and his colleagues (Russell et al. 1991, Hughes & Russell 1993) propose an alternative psychological theory of autism, which centres on the child’s “inability to disengage from the object”.
Suggested reading Rutter, M. Schopler 1987. Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: conceptual and diagnostic issues. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 17, 159–86. Wing, L. 1988. The continuum of autistic characteristics. Mcsibov (eds), 91–110. New York: Plenum Press. Chapter 4 Autism at the biological level The psychogenic myth Bettelheim (1956, 1967) was the source of the “refrigerator mother” theory—the idea that children become autistic as a maladaptive response to a threatening and unloving environment.
Damasio & Maurer 1978, Panksepp & Shaley 1987, Dawson & Lewy 1989, Dawson 1991) and are reviewed elsewhere (Pennington & Welsh 1994). Three commonly accepted criteria for assessing the primacy of a deficit are universality among sufferers of the disorder, specificity to the disorder, and causal precedence in the disorder. In addition, as mentioned in Chapter 5, theories of autism must steer a course between explaining too little—in effect merely describing features—and explaining too much. People with autism show a strikingly uneven profile of abilities, and show islets of unimpaired or even superior skills which require explanation just as much as do the striking handicaps.