By David H. Krinsley, Kenneth Pye, Sam Boggs Jr, N. Keith Tovey
Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE) unearths the minerals, textures, and materials of sediments and rocks in a lot better aspect than is feasible with traditional optical microscopy. Backscattered Scanning Electron Microscopy offers a concise precis of the BSE method. This accomplished advisor makes use of considerable pictures to demonstrate the kind of details BSE yields and the appliance of the strategy to the learn of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The authors overview using this petrographic strategy on the entire significant sedimentary rock varieties, together with sediment grains, sandstones, shales, carbonate rocks, rock varnish, and glauconite. additionally they describe picture research innovations that permit quantification of backscattered scanning electron microscope photos. seriously illustrated and lucidly written, this booklet will supply researchers and graduate scholars with the most up-tp-date learn in this vital geological software.
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Scale bar = 100/^m. 25. K. Scale bar = 100 jum. 26. K. Scale bar = 20 /xm. 27. K. Remaining areas of aragonite (A) appear relatively dark. Scale bar = 100 /xm. f-'t 45 SEDIMENT GRAINS, WEATHERING, AND EARLY DIAGENETIC PHENOMENA complex textural and mineralogical compositional pattern in the rock. 28 shows a relatively young groundwater calcrete collected from a dry stream bed developed on granitoid gneiss in semiarid Kenya (Pye and Coleman, in press). The rock has a high detrital matrix to cement ratio, the detrital component consisting mainly of sand- and silt-size quartz and feldspar fragments, with subsidiary mica.
33. F = feldspar and Q = quartz. Scale bar = 50 ju,m. 35. Laminated subglacial calcite precipitate from Tsanfleuron, Switzerland. Scale bar = 300 /Am. which is much thicker and shows well-developed smallscale lamination, consists of more than 85% calcite, whereas the thin and more discontinuous upper layer contains less than 50% calcite, the remainder comprising detrital siliciclastic grains. 36 shows a contrasting goethite/jarosite subglacial precipitate from Mitdalsbreen, Norway. In this instance the goethite and jarosite have penetrated fissures in the bedrock underlying the surficial precipitate.
This type of system gives a good solid angle for efficient backscattered electron collection, high signal to noise ratio, and the versatility provided by signal mixing capability (Volbert, 1982). Reimer and Riepenhausen (1985) and Hejna (1987) described variants of a ring scintillator BSE detector that surrounds the specimen and accepts electrons emitted in a specific range of zenith angles. In the case of untilted samples, this type of detector collects electrons that emerge from the surface at low angles.