By Fernando E. Vega
Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of local and Invasive Species presents an intensive dialogue of those economically vital pests of coniferous and broadleaf timber and their value in agriculture. it's the first publication out there completely devoted to this crucial crew of bugs, and comprises 15 chapters on normal historical past and ecology, morphology, taxonomy and phylogenetics, evolution and variety, inhabitants dynamics, resistance, symbiotic institutions, average enemies, weather swap, administration suggestions, economics, and politics, with a few chapters completely dedicated to essentially the most economically very important bark beetle genera, together with Dendroctonus, Ips, Tomicus, Hypothenemus, and Scolytus.
This textual content is perfect for entomology and forestry classes, and is aimed toward scientists, college participants, wooded area managers, practitioners of organic regulate of insect pests, mycologists drawn to bark beetle-fungal institutions, and scholars within the disciplines of entomology, ecology, and forestry.
- Provides the single synthesis of the literature on bark beetles
- Features chapters solely dedicated to probably the most economically very important bark beetle genera, resembling Dendroctonus, Ips, Tomicus, Hypothenemus, and Scolytus
- Includes copious colour illustrations and pictures that additional improve the content
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Additional resources for Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species
4 bottom), the same qualitative relationships hold, but the coefficients change. Most importantly, the likelihood of successful attack becomes much higher, and much less sensitive to host defense. , 2006) and conduct (Raffa and Berryman, 1983) mass attacks, colonization attempts are likely to succeed regardless of a tree’s defensive capacity. The intraspecific competition curve can rise somewhat with increases in tree defense level, but this is again constrained by the beetle’s sophisticated anti-aggregation pheromone system that nearly limits the number of attackers to that required to overcome defense.
2005). However, their roles are particularly difficult to quantify. , 2008b). Parasitoids can occasionally exert high mortality, but in general subcortical herbivores experience less parasitism than other insect guilds (Connor and Taverner, 1997). This presumably arises from the protection provided by the bark, and the energy and risk required to access hosts. Parasitism rates may be even further lowered in highly managed systems where nectar sources are reduced (Stephen and Browne, 2000). There is some evidence of density-dependent parasitism of some bark beetle species (Amman, 1984).
Additionally, pheromone-mediated mass attacks are not 22 Bark Beetles analogous to human-wave assaults in which the first lines are slaughtered: such behavior would be highly maladaptive at the level of individual selection, and would require levels of kin selection that are highly unlikely to operate in the field (Raffa, 2001). , 2006; Latty and Reid, 2010). A better estimate of tree defense should incorporate the proportion of adults that emerge from brood trees, but do not encounter trees that elicit their entry behavior, before dying of other causes.