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Additional resources for Beryllium Science and Technology: Volume 2
Boesel, Spark Sintering: An Unusual Method, Metal Prog. 99, 74-77 (1972). 27. A. F. Hayes and J. A. Yoblin, Advanced Techniques for Forging Beryllium, in: The Metallurgy of Be1yl/ium, pp. 763-773, Chapman and Hall, London (1963). 3 Casting R. W. Krenzer 1. INTRODUCTION The term ingot source implies direct fabrication of beryllium products from cast material without the intermediate powder metallurgy processing. This chapter is thus concerned with techniques for casting beryllium and a review of current knowledge about the solidification behavior of the metal.
To eliminate salts carried from the reduction cells and to remove oxide (good melting practices reduce oxygen to below 50 ppm). The clean ingot of proper composition is than comminuted by methods designed to avoid contamination from the atmosphere or equipment. After screening and/or gas elutriation the powder is ready to be consolidated. 2. 1. Production Powder-Making Powder manufacturing starts with a cast ingot of inherently coarse grain size and characterized by low ductility and resistance to fracture.
However, normal-purity beryllium is fortuitously provided with a built-in sintering aid (silicon), a contaminant 24 Norman P. Pinto originating in the ore. 9 MPa (1000 psi) and vacuum conditions of 500 torr or better. Thus the technology is readily available for designing hot-pressing units (Fig. 8); temperatures are attainable in resistance or induction furnaces, graphite dies are easily machined and withstand required pressures, and conventional vacuum systems are sufficient for minimizing oxidation and simultaneously preventing the entrapment of gases within the compact.