By S. Sithanantham, Chandish R. Ballal, S.K. Jalali, N Bakthavatsalam
The topic of the e-book is extremely suitable to the present emphasis on setting conservation, with concentrate on local biodiversity conservation in agro-ecosystems. the present impetus being given to natural farming and export orientated agri-hortculture within the nation demands entry to correct clinical wisdom base one of the stakeholders. examine on organic pest keep an eye on is greater than a century previous in India. Egg parasitoids, that are mostly tiny wasps, led by means of the relatives Trichogrammatidae, are the main extensively applied traditional enemies for organic keep an eye on globally. Over thirty international locations are utilizing those bioagents to guard over 10 million hectares of agricultural and forestry plants from many very important insect pests. The e-book contains 18 chapters, that are prepared in continuum, beginning with simple facets of data and finishing of their usage ambitions. The chapters hide extensively 4 components: bio-diversity and normal prevalence of egg parasitoids, behaviour and edition of egg parasitoids, mass creation and secure use of egg parasitoids and utilisation of egg parasitoids in numerous crop ecosystems. a number of the chapters cater to the desires of discipline-wise replace at the present R&D scenario-like insect taxonomy, biotechnology, mass-production and qc of the objective organisms - egg-parasitoids, that are worthy for laboratory scientists/researchers. There also are chapters dedicated to wisdom prestige and scope for usage of egg parasitoids in numerous objective vegetation, which cater to requisites of box entomologists and extensionists to be used of their projects of guiding farmers/local courses. The e-book is varied in technique, procedure, constitution and content material and guarantees holistic insurance of the subject. The chapters are written through energetic and skilled staff in several plants and features and co-edited by way of 4 very skilled specialists who've over 3 many years R&D event within the topic. the entire authors have uniformly focussed on complete literature learn and important id of data gaps for destiny R&D, hence the publication is novel in outlook, up to date in content material and finished in assurance of issues. This ebook can be worthwhile for supplementary examining for MSc Agriculture and PhD Agriculture scholars, along with MSc/PhD examine scholars in Zoology/Environmental Biology, who're specialising in Entomology. it will additionally function a truly precious reference publication for researchers around the world, notwithstanding concentration is additionally there on Indian paintings. It addresses the detailed info wishes of scholars and school, in addition to practitioners and extensionists within the Australasia and Africa areas and hence no longer constrained to the R&D wisdom generated in constructed countries.
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Additional info for Biological Control of Insect Pests Using Egg Parasitoids
The authors have listed 17 known thelytokous forms; most of which include those derived from arrhenotokous forms like T. chilonis, T. pretiosum, T. evanescens and T. platneri. Hybridisation-caused thelytoky was reported by Pintureau and Babault in 1981 by crossing T. voegeli Pintureau and T. brassicae Bezdenko. The hybrid (F1) progeny produced females without fertilisation, but their daughters were arrhenotokous. The said F1 progenies of the hybrids were true hybrids, and their thelytoky was likely to have been caused by an epistatic interaction between parental genomes (Pinto and Stouthamer 1994).
As mentioned earlier, biosystematic work on the two genera carried out in India includes descriptions of new species of Trichogramma by Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. Therefore, as of now, there are 25 known indigenous species (Nagaraja 1973a, b, 1996; Nagaraja et al. 2007; Nagaraja and Prashanth 2010; Yousuf and Shafee 1987; Yousuf and Hassan 2007, 2008) and one Trichogramma species introduced into India. These are T. chilonis Ishii, T. japonicum Ashmead, T. semblidis Aurivillius, T. achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, T.
Semblidis. The technique which shows distinct traits could be used for reliable differences and is now used with improvements in many countries. Ciociola et al. (2000c) observed that DNA degradation in dead specimens could lead to failure of their identification. The rate of degradation is gradual following 30 H. Nagaraja and B. Ramesh death. Hence, the authors investigated to identify the period within which the DNA is available for the study in dead individuals. Ciociola et al. (2001) used ITS-2 region of the rDNA to identify two closely related Trichogramma species: T.