Biology: 3 by Richard Robinson

By Richard Robinson

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His simple (single-lens) microscope consisted of a ground glass bead mounted over a hole in a rectangular brass plate, with a tiny clip for holding a specimen near the lens. The plate had to be held close to the eye, with good backlighting and great patience. Intent on studying more than fabric, Leeuwenhoek examined pond water, tooth scrapings, animal tissues, and almost anything else he could lay hands on. He was the first to see protozoans, bacteria, sperm and blood cells, muscle striations, and blood capillaries.

Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn. Biology of Plants, 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1999. Leeuwenhoek, Antony van Dutch naturalist 1632–1723 Antony van Leeuwenhoek is often credited with inventing the microscope. In actuality, Galileo, Robert Hooke, and Jan Swammerdam had built microscopes before him; compound (double-lens) microscopes were invented nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born. Those early microscopes, however, were relatively crude and could magnify only twenty to thirty times.

Although lakes and ponds cover only 2 percent of the world’s land surface, they contain most of the world’s fresh water. pH measure of acidity or alkalinity; numbers below 7 are acid, above are basic ion an electrically charged particle The chemistry of lakes and ponds is controlled by a combination of physical, geological, and biological processes. The key chemical characteristics of lakes and ponds are dissolved oxygen concentration, nutrient concentration, and pH. In lakes and ponds, sources of oxygen include diffusion at the water surface, mixing of oxygen-rich surface waters to deeper depths, and photosynthesis.

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