By David H. Jackson Jr. (auth.)
This ebook narrates and analyzes the southern excursions that Booker T. Washington and his affiliates undertook in 1908-1912, referring to them to Washington's racial philosophy and its impression at the quite a few components of black society.
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Additional info for Booker T. Washington and the Struggle against White Supremacy: The Southern Educational Tours, 1908–1912
S. W. ” These types of claims by Southerners contradicted common knowledge that most black Americans survived only by hard labor, and that many performed countless feats of endurance and strength in their daily avocations. 50 Furthermore, the idea of African American infirmity became deeply rooted in the racist system that prevailed in the United States by the end of the nineteenth century. Although the black population continued to grow, one of the most pervasive myths in American and some European anthropological and medical circles was that African Americans were becoming extinct.
They used “civilization” to legitimize their claims to power and supremacy. According to Gail Bederman, by 1890 the discourse of civilization had developed around three specific meanings. They were race, gender, and millennial assumptions about human evolution. “Human races were assumed to evolve from simple savagery, through violent barbarism, to advanced and valuable civilization,” she informed. “But only white races had, as yet, evolved to the civilized stage. ”Civilized men and women had evolved pronounced sexual differences.
Park, vice president and general manager of the Illinois Central Railroad. Banks announced that “the Negro problem . . is being . . ” In this case, like in numerous others, Banks knew that most Southern whites did everything but “encourage” and “help” them. 31 On yet another occasion, Banks illustrated to Washington how he could manipulate the thinking of whites to suit his own purposes. While on a trip giving an interview to a white reporter, the white man offered him money to cover his expenses.