By Vic George, Paul Wilding
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Extra info for British Society and Social Welfare: Towards a Sustainable Society
Several studies have shown that part-time workers vis-a-vis full-time workers in most countries 'face a double bind: lower hourly earnings are severely compounded by less than pro rata employee benefit packages' even after taking into account 'human capital differences and a range of job characteristics' (Gornick and Jacobs, 1996, p. 4). Seen from a gender perspective, this indicates a large number of over qualified women attempting to perform the difficult dual role of mother and wage-earner, and being exploited in the process.
16). While imposing heavy costs on many sections of the population, labour deregulation has helped to increase profitability and has led to more foreign capital investment in the UK than in any other European country during the 1990s. Similarly, productivity rates have improved so as to arrest the decline that set in during the late 1970s, although they have not reached the high rates of previous decades or caught up with those of several European countries (OEeD, 1994a, p. A63). Improved productivity rates, however, do not necessarily lead to higher rates of economic growth in the short term.
Working-time flexibility is the emerging pattern, involving part-time work, unsocial hours, more overtime and a relaxation of labour market regulation and social protection legislation. The driving force behind all these changes is the desire or necessity for employers to reduce wage costs and increase productivity, competitiveness and profitability in a globalized world market. Part-time employment Part-time employment has become a central feature of the British economy. While full-time employment declined, the number of part-time jobs almost doubled from 15 per cent of all jobs in 1971 to 28 per cent in 1994.