Carbon Nanotubes as Platforms for Biosensors with by Mercè Pacios Pujadó

By Mercè Pacios Pujadó

The thesis through Mercè Pacios exploits homes of carbon nanotubes to layout novel nanodevices. The in demand electrochemical homes of carbon nanotubes are used to layout varied electrode configurations. together with the chemical houses and (bio)functionalization versatility, those fabrics turn out to be very acceptable for the improvement of electrochemical biosensors. in addition, this paintings additionally evaluates the semiconductor personality of carbon nanotubes (CNT) for sensor expertise through the use of a box impact transistor configuration (FET). The CNT-FET equipment has been optimized for working in liquid environments. those electrochemical and digital CNT units are hugely promising for biomolecule sensing and for the tracking of organic techniques, that may sooner or later result in purposes for speedy and easy diagnostics in fields equivalent to biotechnology, scientific and environmental research.

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2 g cm−3) grown on a silica substrate by chemical vapour deposition and microelectrodes composed of patches of 300 μm × 300 μm with high density of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (also grown by thermal CVD process) which have been developed in the National Microelectronics Centre (CNM, Barcelona) [141]. 4 CNT-Ultramicroelectrode Arrays Arrays of CNTs can provide more benefits from the electroanalytical point of view if their geometrical disposition is perfectly controlled in order to make them act as nanoelectrode arrays [138, 139].

In this case, the CNT-FET is totally switched off for the positive voltages, a typical behaviour for a p-type system in which the holes are the dominant charge carriers. As said, most CNT-FETs exposed to air show p-type behaviour but become more ambipolar in vacuum. Such doping effect can take place during the synthesis and handling of nanotubes or by oxygen adsorption on the CNT-metal interface when exposed to air or by charge transfer from high work function contact electrodes. For instance, the oxygen changes the work function of the metal contact compared to its value in vacuum shifting the energy of the Fermi level of the metal with respect to the valence and conduction band edges in the CNT and thereby 9 The transconductance, gm, can be expressed as gm = Ct|VG − Vthr|μ/L, where Ct is the total capacitance, VG is the gate voltage, Vthr is the threshold gate voltage, μ is the charge carrier mobility and L is the length of the tube.

A typical electrode substrate for building up non-oriented CNT films is glassy carbon. Glassy carbon (GC), also referred to as vitreous carbon, is widely used as a solid carbon electrode for electroanalysis [109]. Unlike HOPG and other graphites, GC is hard and microstructurally isotropic; the interwoven sp2 carbon ribbon gives rise to its mechanical hardness, so the material is polishable and impermeable to gases and liquids. The density of the GC is less than the HOPG one, indicating that the material contains some void space (nanoporosity) [130].

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