By Michael Bergmann, Patrick Kain
Challenges to ethical and spiritual Belief comprises fourteen unique essays through philosophers, theologians, and social scientists on demanding situations to ethical and spiritual trust from confrontation and evolution. 3 major questions are addressed: Can one kind of hold one's ethical and spiritual ideals within the face of interpersonal war of words with highbrow friends? Does confrontation approximately morality among a non secular trust resource, reminiscent of a sacred textual content, and a non-religious trust resource, reminiscent of a society's ethical intuitions, make it irrational to proceed trusting one or either one of these trust resources? may still evolutionary money owed of the origins of our ethical ideals and our spiritual ideals undermine our self belief of their veracity? This quantity areas demanding situations to ethical trust side-by-side with demanding situations to non secular trust, units evolution-based demanding situations along disagreement-based demanding situations, and contains philosophical views including theological and social technology views, with the purpose of cultivating insights and contours of inquiry which are simply neglected inside a unmarried self-discipline or whilst those issues are taken care of in isolation. the result's a set of essays--representing either skeptical and non-skeptical positions approximately morality and religion--that circulate those discussions ahead in new and illuminating directions.
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Additional resources for Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution
Corvino, John. (2005). ‘Homosexuality and the PIB Argument’, Ethics, 115:501–34. Duffy, Eamon. (1992). The Stripping of the Altars. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Enoch, David. (2011). Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism. New York: Oxford University Press. Foot, Philippa. (1978). ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect’, in Virtues and Vices. Oxford: Blackwell, 19–33. Haidt, Jonathan. (2001). ‘The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment’, Psychological Review, 108(4):814–34.
Once one has formulated intuitively appealing principles that can account for all of one’s considered judgments which have not been revised, one has reached ‘reflective equilibrium’. Ideally, moral philosophers should seek what Rawls calls ‘wide’ reflective equilibrium: in constructing this set of principles, one should not only canvas the widest possible array of considered judgments in order to see what sets of principles they can be coherently integrated with, one should also consider every possible set of principles that might conceivably be integrated with one’s considered judgments in reflective equilibrium, together with ‘all relevant arguments’ for these principles.
Nonetheless, cultural disagreements are limited. Almost no cultures fail to judge it immoral to kill other people without any justification or excuse just in order to take their money. If a culture generally allowed people to kill for money in such common circumstances, that culture would have obvious problems and would not survive long. Consequently, any argument from cultural disagreement to moral skepticism applies (at least directly) to only some but not all moral beliefs. The same points apply when disagreements arise from individual variation instead of culture.