By Sigurd Skogestad
Notation, innovations and numbersNotationAlways cost the units!Some conversion factorsSome vital numbersSome vital conceptsUnit operationsBatch and non-stop processA little approximately economySome enjoyable and valuable power exercisesGlobal strength consumptionDerivation of stability equationsThe stability principleThe stability equationMass balances with out accumulationRecycleSystematic formula and resolution of mass balancesUse of spreadsheet programExamples of recycle with no reactionFlash calculationsSummary: method for deriving stability equationsDegrees of freedom and solvabilitySimulation versus. Read more...
summary: Notation, thoughts and numbersNotationAlways payment the units!Some conversion factorsSome vital numbersSome very important conceptsUnit operationsBatch and non-stop processA little approximately economySome enjoyable and precious power exercisesGlobal power consumptionDerivation of stability equationsThe stability principleThe stability equationMass balances with no accumulationRecycleSystematic formula and resolution of mass balancesUse of spreadsheet programExamples of recycle with no reactionFlash calculationsSummary: approach for deriving stability equationsDegrees of freedom and solvabilitySimulation as opposed to
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Margaret’s companion could no longer continue. Thinking it would be best to go for help, they decided to separate their final mistake. Her companion, after resting out the heat of the day, made it out alive. Two days after beginning their trip, park rangers found Margaret’s body. While hiking up the canyon the heat production Q is at least 600 W. You can imagine what happens if you leave a kettle of water on the stove at 600 W – the water disappears fast, and this is what happened to Margaret Bradley.
Next, a few exercises on the heat loss Q for humans. ). Thus, in practice all the energy E ends up as heat Q: E≈Q Some typical data for the required energy E for various activities: sleeping sitting walking jogging 70 W 100 W 250 W 500 W To remove the corresponding amount of heat Q, we consider three cooling mechanisms: 1. Heat loss by breathing (Q1 ) 2. Heat loss by heat exchange through the skin (Q2 ) 3. Heat loss by sweating (Q3 ) The total heat loss is Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 In the first exercise, you will find that the breathing heat loss Q1 is insignificant in most cases.
We next illustrate the ideas for economical analysis with a simple example. 2 Economic analysis of batch versus continuous production. 7 where m [t/y] is the yearly production. 7. , the Lang-factor has already been included. We note that it costs one million dollars to build a plant with zero production capacity. The production cost Pc for the continuous plant, without the capital cost, is assumed to be Pc [$/y] = 2 · 106 + 100 · m[t/y] Here, a constant term of 2 · 106 $/y is included to account for fixed costs like wages for supporting staff and insurance, while the variable term included cost for energy, operators and raw materials.