By John P. Uyemura (auth.)
During the decade, CMOS has turn into more and more beautiful as a uncomplicated built-in circuit expertise as a result of its low energy (at average frequencies), strong scalability, and rail-to-rail operation. There are actually a number of CMOS circuit types, a few in accordance with static complementary con ductance houses, yet others borrowing from prior NMOS ideas and the benefits of utilizing clocking disciplines for precharge-evaluate se quencing. during this accomplished publication, the reader is led systematically in the course of the whole variety of CMOS circuit layout. beginning with the in dividual MOSFET, simple circuit development blocks are defined, resulting in a vast view of either combinatorial and sequential circuits. as soon as those circuits are thought of within the gentle of CMOS strategy applied sciences, impor tant subject matters in circuit functionality are thought of, together with features of interconnect, gate hold up, gadget sizing, and I/O buffering. uncomplicated circuits are then composed to shape macro parts equivalent to multipliers, the place the reader acquires a unified view of architectural functionality via par allelism, and circuit functionality via cautious awareness to circuit-level and structure layout optimization. subject matters in analog circuit layout mirror the starting to be tendency for either analog and electronic circuit kinds to be mixed at the comparable chip, and a cautious therapy of BiCMOS types introduces the reader to the mix of either FET and bipolar applied sciences at the similar chip to supply more advantageous performance.
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Additional info for Circuit Design for CMOS VLSI
MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS 24 with ~GS the work function difference between the gate (G) and substrate (S), QJ the fixed surface charge density in units of [C/cm2], and Poz the trapped oxide charge density in units of [C/cmS]. Current processing techniques generally reduce the effect of the trapped charge to negligible levels by performing the oxidation in a chlorinated atmosphere. The fixed charge QJ, on the other hand, is due in part to the change in composition from silicon to silicon dioxide, and cannot be eliminated .
The material in Chapter 6 completes the discussion of basic logic circuits in CMOS by examining the interface between schematics and realistic chip design. After a review of process flows and isolation techniques, design rules are studied to set the stage for the discussion. The analysis is then directed towards the properties and modeling of interconnects from both the physics and circuit viewpoints. Yoltage transmission from a CMOS circuit is discussed using both lumped-element and transmission line models.
The situation is really not as bad as it may seem, since process variations often mask out the errors in calculating capacitance values. Furthermore, critical designs are always checked with simulation results. 5. 5 47 J unction Leakage Currents Ideally, a reverse-biased pn junction acts as a block against current flow. Realistic junctions admit small leakage currents which may become important when small charges are involved. Dynamic logic is particularly susceptible to junction leakage problems as discussed in Chapter 6.