By Jane Pryer, Nigel Crook
Offers an cutting edge approach of analysing the factors of city malnutrition and hyperlinks this research to 3 tasks in contrasting city settings.
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Extra info for Cities of Hunger: Urban Malnutrition in Developing Countries
Figure 4 presents a view of the life-cycle of a family, and of the relationship between its needs and resources. The household is essentially a nuclear one, consisting of a couple with four surviving children, perhaps more typical of a poor urban family than a rural one. In this imaginary family each child becomes economically active to some degree at the age of 10, and the mother resumes some economic activity when the youngest child is 2 years old. Overall food needs reach a peak as the two oldest children pass through their late teenage years, just before they leave to set up their own homes.
Outsiders frequently believe slums and squatter communities to be homogeneous. This is rarely, if ever, the case. Such communities are nearly always extremely heterogeneous, with conflicts of interest between different economic, ethnic, kinship or religious groups. Where exploitation by dominant factions or leaders - such as landlords, slum lords, or labour lords - is a significant force in a slum or squatter community, genuine community participation in development activities is likely to be very difficult to initiate.
42 Figure 6: Acceptability of urban development approaches to local and other elites. Dimension of urban deprivation Examples of direct approaches Physical weakness - Vulnerability and poverty - employment generation - interest-free (or low interest) loans: for employment, sickness, ceremonies and death - redistribution of old assets - distribution of new assets Powerlessness - legal aid - enforcement of liberal laws - trade union activity - political mobilisation - non-violent political change - violent political change Acceptability to local and other elites eye camps feeding centres family planning curative health services High i i Low Source: adapted from R.