By Hans J. ten Donkelaar, Martin Lammens, Akira Hori
The surprising development in developmental neurobiology, the dramatic advances in (neuro)genetics and the excessive solution of the trendy imaging innovations appropriate to developmental issues of the human mind and spinal wire have created a singular perception into the developmental historical past of the important worried procedure (CNS). medical Neuroembryology offers a complete evaluation of the improvement of the human CNS within the context of its many developmental problems because of genetic, environmental and hypoxic factors. it really is special within the mixture of knowledge from human embryology, animal learn and developmental neuropathology.
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Extra resources for Clinical Neuroembryology: Development and Developmental Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System
Developmental malformations of the cerebellum are mostly bilateral and may be divided into (1) malformations of the vermis and (2) malformations of the vermis as well as of the hemispheres (Norman et al. 1995; Kollias and Ball 1997; Ramaeckers et al. 1997; Barkovich 2000; ten Donkelaar et al. 2003). Agenesis or hypoplasia of the vermis may occur in a great variety of disorders, most frequently in the Dandy–Walker malformation (Chap. 8). Pontocerebellar hypoplasia forms a large group of disorders, characterized by a small pons and a varying degree of hypoplasia of the cerebellum (Barth 1993; Ramaeckers et al.
15). The neuromeres of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were determined morphologically on the basis of sulci, mitotic activity in the walls and fibre tracts. Six primary neuromeres appear already at stage 9 when the neural folds are not fused (Fig. 7b): prosencephalon, mesencephalon and four rhombomeres (A–D). Sixteen secondary neuromeres can be recognized from about stage 11. They gradually fade after stage 15 (Fig. 12). Eight rhombomeres (Rh1–Rh8), an isthmic neuromere (I), two mesomeres (M1, M2) of the midbrain, two diencephalic neuromeres (D1, D2) and one telencephalic neuromere (T) can be distinguished.
The thick periventricular germinal layer has a low-signal intensity. 9 Fig. 27 Fetal T2-weighted MRI taken at the 35th week of development. The basal ganglia (in a), the amygdala (in a) and the hippocampal region (in b) are easily recognized. The corpus callosum is visible in a and b Development of the Meninges and Choroid Plexuses The cranial meninges originate from several sources such as the prechordal plate, the parachordal mesoderm and the neural crest (O’Rahilly and Müller 1986). The loose mesenchyme around most of the brain at 5 weeks of development (stage 15) forms the primary meninx.