By Robert Holzmann, David A. Robalino, Noriyuki Takayama
Last the insurance hole discusses how social pensions and different retirement source of revenue transfers can be utilized to shut the assurance hole of vital pension structures. The publication is prepared in 3 elements. the 1st half makes the case for those courses by way of assessing the level of the assurance hole around the globe and comparing the vulnerability to poverty of the aged. the second one half experiences the reports of low, center and excessive source of revenue international locations with the layout and implementation of retirement source of revenue transfers. The final half makes a speciality of layout concerns. It analyses the motivation impression of those courses on exertions offer and rate reductions, economic expenditures, the position of focusing on mechanisms, and choices when it comes to institutional layout and management. The ebook additionally discusses the function of promising tools reminiscent of matching contributions to arrive elements of the casual area.
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Additional info for Closing the Coverage Gap: Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers
The available data show that less than 20 percent of the elderly are covered, and only about 25 percent of the labor force is contributing or accruing pension rights in the world. Coverage of the active population tends to decrease in direct proportion to the country’s per capita GDP, and within individual countries it tends to be lower among the less educated, who typically earn less. Moreover, low income workers tend to have significant gaps in their contribution history. These workers often get raw deals from social security because they contribute for several years, but not long enough to receive full benefits.
Most surveys interview persons only once and contain only contemporary information; some interview the same person more than once. Work history records kept by social security administrations are longitudinal data sets. The literature has used various methods to measure the coverage of pension systems. The choice of methodology is often dictated by data availability. With aggregate data, the percentage of the population covered is a natural indicator. The notion of covered population requires some clarification because different concepts have been employed.
Samson, Michael. 2006. ” Prepared for Social Pensions Symposium at the International Federation of Ageing, 8th Global Conference, “Global Ageing: The North-South Challenge,” Copenhagen, May 30–June 3. Valdés-Prieto, Salvador. 2008. ” Social Protection Discussion Paper 0828, Pension Reform Primer Series, World Bank, Washington, DC. CHAPTER 2 Measuring the Coverage Gap Alvaro Forteza, Leonardo Lucchetti, and Montserrat Pallares-Miralles The inability of most pension systems to reach significant swaths of the population in developing countries is currently recognized as one of their principal flaws.