By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson
Following an creation to coevolutionary techniques, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite techniques for trying out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the impression of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a diversified assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on vegetation, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are strong types for the learn of coevolution simply because they're effortless to monitor, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their whole lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're very best to producing a man-made evaluate of coevolution—and, thereby, supply a thrilling framework for integrating the suggestions of coadaptation and codiversification.
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Extra info for Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History
2011). 4. Simplified divergence time chronogram (in millions of years) for Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) and Phthiraptera (parasitic lice from birds, in black, and mammals, in grey) from Smith et al. (2011). Dates were established based on several calibration points including (a) Megamenopon (plate 3), a fossil louse that lived at least 44 million years ago (mya), (b) a fossil liposcelidid (booklouse) that lived at least 100 mya, as well as several other calibration points based on the host (bird and mammal) fossil record.
It is important to consider these effects because they are useful for understanding the potential effects of lice on wild hosts. However, data from domesticated hosts must be interpreted carefully, for several reasons. Because domesticated hosts are under relaxed natural selection, and because they tend to be housed under dense conditions, their lice may be unusually virulent. Furthermore, given increased opportunities for “straggling” of lice between host species living in close proximity, domesticated hosts may have lice and other parasites that are not found on their wild counterparts.
Chewing lice have broad heads with mandibulate mouthparts that are used to bite or scrape the host’s integument (plate 2b, c). Chewing lice were traditionally called biting lice (Clay 1949a), but this is inaccurate because sucking lice also bite their hosts. Chewing lice consume feathers, skin debris, and secretions; some species also consume any blood on or near the skin’s surface (Marshall 1981a; Lehane 2005; Mey 2013). Other chewing lice feed primarily on the downy regions of abdominal feathers (chapter 3).