Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors by Alan Owens

By Alan Owens

"Although elemental semiconductors akin to silicon and germanium are general for power dispersive spectroscopy within the laboratory, their use for an expanding diversity of functions is turning into marginalized via their actual obstacles, particularly the necessity for ancillary cooling, their modest preventing powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, however, surround this kind of wide selection of physical Read more...

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Soc. , Vol. 40 (1950) pp. 219–221. L. Hughes, “Photoconductivity in Crystals,” Rev. of Mod. , Vol. 8 (1936) pp. 294–315. G. McKay, “A Germanium Counter,” Phys. , Vol. 76 (1949) pp. 1537–1537. G. B. McAfee, “Electron Multiplication in Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. , Vol. 91 (1953) pp. 1079–1084. G. Chynoweth, “Conductivity Crystal Counters,” Amer. J. , Vol. 20 (1952) pp. 218–226. L. M. F. Donovan, “Semiconductor Particle Detectors,” Annual Review of Nuclear Science, Vol. 12 (1962) pp. 189–220. W.

In semiconductors, the bandgaps are smaller than those of insulators to the extent that thermal energy can excite electrons to the conduction band. However, if the temperature (and therefore thermal energy) is lowered sufficiently, semiconductors become insulators. Metals, on the other hand, are conductors at any temperature. 1 Classification of Materials According to Their Energy Gap, Eg, and Carrier Density, n, at Room Temperature Material Metal Semimetal Semiconductor Insulator Eg(eV) n (cm–3) no energy gap 1022 Eg ≤ 0 10 –1021 0 < Eg < 4 <1017 Eg ≥ 4 <<1 17 Note: Values are given for pure, that is, intrinsic, materials.

For example, because of differences in the properties of the valence and conduction bands, there is a significant difference in the mobilities of n and p type materials. 8). It is lower at very low and high temperatures and has its maximum value in the middle of the temperature range around 100 K. Numerically, electron mobilities are generally in the thousands of cm2V–1s –1 range, while hole mobilities are in the hundreds of cm2V–1s –1 range. Mobility also depends on lattice scattering and impurity scattering.

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