By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz
Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have continuously been intere ted in
errors produced by way of second-language beginners, both of their speech or
writing or either. in truth, newbies' error were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for fairly an extended time.
There were significant ways to the examine of learner ' mistakes .
namely Contrasti ve research and mistake Analysis.
The author's critical purpose in scripting this booklet has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and blunder research direction now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this path did not disguise many facets of mistakes Analy i
which are handled within the current e-book. The booklet is usually meant to
provide practising lecturers with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they must deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this publication is predicated at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and mistake research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over numerous years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and profitable. makes an attempt were made to offer the material
systematically. it's strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the educating and analyzing of the fabric gentle and easy.
It is was hoping that this e-book, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive perspective in the direction of error, either at the a part of educators and
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Additional resources for Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis
More .. .. . and more core in a language. Chapter 2 - CA of Some Selected Features ... 1 Introduction Based on the theoretical discussion presented in Chapter I , in this chapter an actual contrastive analysis of certain features of English and Persian will be presented. In this task, ftrst the selected features from these two languages will be described in linguistic terms and then they will be compared and contrasted. Next, based on the differences found between the two languages certain predictions will be made about difficulties Persian-speaking learners of English may encounter.
It needs to be pointed out that mother tongue interference is not the only cause of errors in the use of prepositions; other factors need to be taken into consideration as well. As mentioned earlier, some of the English prepositions are absent in Persian, and some with apparently translation equivalents have different functions in the two languages. As a result, many of the errors can be attributed to the MT interference; however, once the learner starts learning English and gradually builds up his knowledge of the target language, interference from other prepositions in English will emerge as an intralingual factor.
Brehs krerdrend (P) they about that matter discussed (LT) They discussed about that matter. (PE) They discussed the matter. (E) Category 3. In this category, for several prepositions in English there exists only one counterpart in Persian. As an example, the preposition /zir/ in Persian can equally be used for the English prepositions below, under, beneath, and underneath, as shown in the folJowing examples. a. zi heivanat zir-e zrernin zendregi mjkonrenred (P) some animals below ground live make (LT) Some animals live below the ground.