By Jean-Paul Duroudier
Crystallization and Crystallizers, a part of the commercial gear for Chemical Engineering set, defines the right way to practice the choice and calculation of kit wanted within the easy operations of method engineering, providing trustworthy and easy tools, with this quantity supplying a finished specialise in crystallization and crystallizers.
Throughout those concise and easy-to-use books, the writer makes use of his large useful adventure and precision wisdom of world examine to offer an in-depth learn of various features in the box of chemical engineering.
- The formation of crystals (or nucleation) is studied in its theoretical and useful details
- The writer additionally offers equipment wanted for figuring out the gear utilized in utilized thermodynamics
- The chapters are complemented with appendices which offer more information in addition to any linked references
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Extra resources for Crystallization and Crystallizers
Crystallizer crust formation Using a mother liquor to obtain crystals often requires this liquid to be cooled through a metal. Occasionally, solubility decreases with temperature and it must be subsequently heated. A phenomenon known as scaling them occurs on the boiler vapor tubes. When the difference in temperature between the liquor and the metal surface exceeds a certain threshold (between 2 and 20°C), crystals begin to form on this surface. This is known as crusting, which is highly problematic for the thermal transfer as the thermal conductivity of crystals is 10–50 times lower than that of mild steel or even of stainless steel.
For low supersaturation of this order, the useful fragments (with a size greater than 20 μm and, consequently, with sufficient enlarging) represent only 1% of the total population. 4. h −1 Supersaturation accessible prior to nucleation can be represented by the interval separating the saturation curve and the nucleation curve as seen in the temperature–concentration system of coordinates. 2. Metastable zone Massive nucleation occurs once the metastability threshold is crossed. However, often ΔTmax and Δcmax do not correspond to the same nucleation curve.
SAN 87] established that there is identity between the measured values of sound wave velocity and those calculated based on crystal potential. Various Properties of Crystals 25 This calculation is based on the fact that a displacement has two consequences: – the apparition of deformation tensor; – the apparition of a modification in crystal potential with the apparition of stress tensor as a corollary. For organic compounds, Eij does not exceed 30 GPa but can reach 200 GPa for metals such as iron or for minerals.