By Mahin D. Maines
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Extra info for Current Protocols in Toxicology
Screens may thus truly be considered the biologic equivalent of exploratory data analysis (EDA). EDA methods, in fact, provide a number of useful possibilities for less rigid and yet quite effective approaches to the statistical analysis of the data from screens, and are one of the alternative approaches presented here. , mutagenicity, lethality, neurotoxicity, developmental toxicity) and have a particular set of operating characteristics in common. 1. A large number of compounds must be evaluated; therefore, ease and speed of performance (which may also be considered efficiency) are major desirable characteristics.
The anticipated promise of transgenic technology is to provide sets of Tg animals with individual but related characteristics, using human genes, and subject them to standard toxicology protocols. The end result will be a delineation of the relationship between biochemical and metabolic pathways and chemical toxicity. Several Tg mouse models have been developed and characterized for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis testing. The mutagenesis systems in Tg mice incorporate well understood bacterial genes into the murine genome.
The two arrows pointing upward represent the restriction sites used to remove the bacterial plasmid sequences. The polyadenylation site is designated as poly(A). (knockout) Tg mice. Transgenic technology consists of two basic avenues: pronuclear microinjection of one-cell embryos, and blastocyst microinjection (or aggregation) of genetargeted ES cells with the formation of chimeras. 2. This unit focuses exclusively on the mouse. The rat is used extensively in toxicology studies, but unfortunately the understanding of preimplantation embryology and transgenesis lags behind that of the mouse.