Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic and Hydrologic by Seon Ki Park, Liang Xu

By Seon Ki Park, Liang Xu

This e-book provides the latest achievements in info assimilation in Geosciences, in particular with reference to meteorology, oceanography and hydrology. It spans either theoretical and utilized elements with numerous methodologies together with variational, Kalman clear out, greatest probability ensemble filter out and different ensemble equipment. in addition to facts assimilation, different vital subject matters also are lined together with concentrating on commentary, parameter estimation, and distant sensing information retrieval. The ebook can be invaluable to person researchers in addition to graduate scholars as a reference within the box of information assimilation.

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A new method based on ensemble of analyses to estimate the background errors is described in detail in Fisher (2003a, 2003b) who presents also modern approaches to background error covariance matrix construction. 10 Framework of Variational Data Assimilation The objective of variational 4-D Var is to find the solution to a numerical forecast model that best fits a series of observational fields distributed in space over a finite time interval. We are assuming that the model of the atmosphere can be written as B dX + A(X) = 0 dt (34) with B being identity for a dynamical model or the null operator for a steady state model.

2 Relationship Between OI and 3-D VAR The terminology of 4-D VAR (4-dimensional data assimilation) was originally used in research centers in the context of using continuous data assimilation satellite data leading to the First Global Atmosphere Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment, Charney, Halem and Jastrow (1969). Insertion of observations directly into primitive equations models excited spurious inertia-gravity oscillations in the model and required the use of damping schemes (Matsuno 1966) for damping the high-frequency components.

7 Emergence of Early Data Assimilation Works Le Dimet (1982), Lewis and Derber (1985), Courtier (1985), Le Dimet and Talagrand (1986) were the first to work on adjoint data assimilation. Cacuci (1981a, 1981b) extended adjoint sensitivity analysis to the fully nonlinear case. Lagrange multiplier methods were presented in detail by Bertsekas (1982), while Navon and De Villiers (1983) exhibited the method in detail applied to enforcing conservation of integral invariants. 8 Optimal Interpolation (OI) Methods Lev Gandin (1965) coined the term (OI) but the technique of statistical interpolation can be traced back to Kolmogorov (1941) and Wiener (1949) and the terminology of optimal interpolation was apparently due to Wiener (1949).

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