By American Water Works Association
Using seawater desalination is an more and more wanted replacement for brand new consuming water provides in coastal components, really as desalination turns into more cost effective. This new handbook of perform parlays classes realized from fresh experiences and worldwide seawater desalination tasks into information for desalination amenities which are trustworthy, low-budget, and environmentally sound. This new handbook is in particular designed to assist water software managers and layout engineers comprehend desalination-the applied sciences, the infrastructure, and the costs-to make proficient judgements from making plans via therapy plant building. It explains environmental and ecological affects of desalination vegetation, seawater intakes, and the disposal of focus discharges again into the sea. Chapters describe the minerals and different ingredients that verify resource water caliber and, for this reason, therapy methods
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Extra resources for Desalination of Seawater
2005. ” State-of-the-Science Report Number 2, Joint Water Reuse Desalination Task Force. D. 2005. ” International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. H. and L. Song. 2009. ” Desalination, 246(1-3), 605-612. , E. Schoepke, L. Etchinson, T. O’Brien, B. Hernon, K. Perry, and M. Peterson. 2001. ” International Desalination & Water Reuse Quarterly, 10(4), 27-31. Stumm, W. 1960. ” Jour. Sanitary Eng. Division ASCE, 86(11), 27-45. Stumm, W. 1956. ” Jour. AWWA, 48(3), 300-310.
Typical loading rates are 2-6 gpm/ft2. filtration processes. Nonionic and anionic polymers are sometimes used as a filter aids. Chemical Addition Sulfuric acid is often used to depress the pH Acid addition has not been shown to be problemto prevent calcium carbonate scaling. Scale atic but has been replaced more recently by inhibitors have also been applied to prevent scale inhibitors. or delay sparingly soluble sulfate salts from precipitating. Cartridge Filtration Cartridge filters are used as the last line of defense against particles reaching the RO membrane surface.
Figure 2-2 Boston Ivy with tip burn from chloride Source: HortScience Inc. , with the concentration of bromide roughly three orders of magnitude larger in seawater than in the highest quartile of freshwater supplies. 8 mg/L under typical operating conditions). indb 20 4/21/2011 10:09:44 AM Water Quality 21 levels have been associated with the formation of brominated DBPs. Chlorine added for disinfection can oxidize bromide to bromine; the bromine may then react with NOM to form brominated DBPs.