By Colin Barnes, Len Barton, Mike Oliver
Over contemporary years there was an extraordinary upsurge of curiosity within the normal sector of incapacity and incapacity reviews among teachers and researchers during the global. This has generated an more and more expansive literature, from a number of views, together with cultural reviews, improvement experiences, geography, historical past, philosophy, social coverage, social psychology and sociology. possibly unavoidably, given this heightened curiosity, a couple of very important demanding situations and debates have emerged which increase many major questions for all these attracted to this newly emergent and more and more vital box. incapacity stories at the present time presents a useful advent to and an outline of those matters and controversies. even supposing the sphere is more and more interdisciplinary in nature, the emphasis is essentially a sociological one on account that sociology maintains to play a important function within the improvement of incapacity stories. while the focal point is totally on theoretical innovation and development, the arguments provided during this ebook have vital political and coverage implications for either disabled and non-disabled humans. in addition, considering incapacity reviews, like ethnic, women's and homosexual and lesbian experiences, has built from a place of engagement and activism instead of one among detachment, the articles during this quantity keep this practice. The ebook includes contributions from validated figures, in addition to rookies to the sector. themes coated comprise: the background of the improvement of incapacity reports in Britain and the US, key rules, matters and thinkers, the position of the physique, divisions and hierarchies, heritage, strength and identification, paintings, politics and the disabled peoples' flow, globalization, human rights, study and the function of the academy. This publication will end up valuable to students, researchers, scholars and coverage makers and, certainly, all these keen on this more and more vital sector of social enquiry.
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As we shall see in the next section, some writers within disabi l ity studies have also drawn upon these theoretical perspectives, but as far as the wider literature on the sociology of the body is concerned, very little has been said a bout impairment or d i sability. The sociology of the body The ' missing' impaired and disa bled body in the sociology of the body is, in part, a reflection of the fact that 'rea l ' bodies - material and organic of any type are a bsent. The socia l constructionist character of much of the theorizing ensures that it is the cultural representations and discursive positionings of bodies ( that is, of 'norm a l ' bodies) that is the focus of interest.
The difference is that current methodological and stati stical techniques allow research e r s t o address social, cultural a n d environmental e ffects in a more preci se and integrated fashion ( Brown 2001) . This exercise has sti m ulated social scientists and disabil ity scholars to refine the theories a nd models which they use to understand disabi lity and its effects, health and social inter- 26 Gary L. Albrecht ventions, the physical and soc i a l envi ronment, and the ou tcomes of different soci a l policies.
Accord ing to Berger and Luckman n ( 1 96 6 ) , reality is socially constructed th rough three processes: externalization, objectification and interna l i zation. Externa lization occurs when people prod u ce cultural prod ucts th rough their social i nteractions. Examples of this in the disa bi lity arena a re lip reading and signing a m o ng deaf people a nd group cohesion among spinal cord inj ured individuals due to the visibility of, and meanings attached to, wheelcha ir use. Objectification occurs when these externa lized prod ucts take on a meaning of their own.